Applications mainly relate to enhanced oil recovery and supercritical fluids. By measuring wettability and interfacial tension with Attension Theta High Pressure you can get information on how to optimize:
The Attension Theta High Pressure is an optical tensiometer with a high pressure chamber inside which the measurement takes place.
The instrument consists of high-quality parts that ensure the ease of use, functionality and safety of the system. The chamber itself is made from corrosion resistant stainless steel and can be optionally offered to be made from Hastelloy instead. The chamber includes three windows for visualizing the interphase. The chamber can be placed either in upright or inverted position which removes the need for using hooked needles as the same straight needle can be used independent of the phases. The chamber sits on the Attension Theta optical tensiometer which uses Full HD-resolution camera to image the interphase precisely.
The unique piston enabling accurate and convenient surfactant and brine studies is placed inside the measurement chamber. Next to the chamber, a sample port is situated which is used for introducing the sample and for flushing the sample line easily. All other valves are integrated to a valve door to be able to safely and conveniently open and close the desired pressure lines. The valve door is a part of the larger safety cabinet that makes the system exceptionally safe to use.
For temperature control of the chamber there are two options: resistor heating or Peltier heating and cooling. Resistor heating enables software-controlled temperature range from ambient to 200 degrees Centigrade whereas the Peltier element combined to a water bath enables temperature control from 1 to 70 degrees Centigrade.
The system uses two high pressure pumps: one to create pressure in the chamber and one to create the droplet under high pressure. Thanks to the flexible design of the Attension Theta High Pressure, the system can be used with both automatic and manual pumps and can even be connected to pre-existing pumps if preferred. The manual pump is an economic solution for performing measurements using liquids. An automated HPLC pump automates the liquid droplet creation and/or liquid pressure increase in bulk. For gasses, their compression capability is limited and an automated syringe pump is required. Using a configuration of one manual and one automatic pump enables gas measurements conveniently.
If required, the entire chamber can be disassembled and reassembled easily within minutes. This makes cleaning of the chamber convenient as the parts can be flushed or washed in a washing machine.
The Attension Theta High Pressure keeps its user well protected with multiple safety mechanisms. Two overpressure valves automatically release any excess pressure through the release lines. Overheating is prevented using both an overheating switch that will cut the heating power if the temperature exceeds the maximum temperature limit as well as with the OneAttension software that will refuse to overheat the chamber. The cabinet with its easily-accessible valves reduces the need to be near the heated and pressurized parts.
Wettability of CO2 in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)
In order to gain the maximum yield from an oil reservoir, methods grouped under the name enhanced oil recovery (EOR) are used. One common EOR method is to use CO2 to both dissolve and displace oil in a reservoir.
To study the effectiveness of the CO2, the wettability of it can be measured by using interfacial tension and contact angle measurements. The interfacial tension between CO2 and brine, for example, correlates with how easily carbon dioxide can be pumped into the reservoir. Likewise, the contact angle of an oil drop in a carbon dioxide environment gives a measure how well the CO2 can displace the oil on rock surface.
For more detailed information about using CO2 in enhanced oil recovery, see: