What you can measure

  • Roughness-corrected contact angle and 3D surface roughness
    Fringe projection phase shifting method
  • Interfacial dilatational rheology 
    Pulsating drop method
  • Static contact angle 
    Sessile drop, captive bubble and meniscus methods
  • Dynamic contact angle 
    Dynamic contact angle, advancing and receding contact angle, contact angle hysteresis and roll-off angle
  • Surface free energy 
    Sessile drop, captive bubble and meniscus methods
  • Surface- and interfacial tension 
    Pendant drop and reverse pendant drop methods

A quick view

This short video will give you a quick overview of surface roughness corrected measurements with Theta Topography. Watch it in fullscreen for the best experience!

3 reasons to invest

Innovative instrument

Behind Theta Topography stands our premium tensiometer Theta Flow, with added functionality. The innovative Theta Topography lets you peek at the surface like never before. Surface roughness can be displayed in both 2D and 3D. 

Integrated method

You are able to define contact angle and surface roughness accurately from the same location. Combine surface chemical and topographical data with automated software calculations. 

Better comparisons

When your contact angle and surface free energy results are roughness-corrected, it is possible to distinguish the effect of surface chemistry and surface roughness on wettability. This is important for example when working with coatings or surface treatments.


Is your surface smooth?

Wettability is typically studied by a contact angle measurement that can be defined with the well-known Young equation on ideal surfaces. Surface free energy theories are also based on assumptions that Young contact angles are used for calculations. Thus, the surface is assumed to be chemically homogenous and topographically smooth. This is, however, not true in the case of real surfaces. It is well established that surface roughness enhances the existing wetting behavior and influence on adhesion.

Theta Topography makes it possible to define Young contact angle and surface free energy measurements as well as measurements for rough surfaces according to the Wenzel theory. The roughness corrected contact angles make it possible to understand the influence of roughness and chemistry on the wettability of your surface, separately. By using the highly accurate motorized XYZ sample stage, you can perform both measurements from the exact same location and map the complete surface to check homogeneity and cleanliness. 

Images show a paper sample measured with Theta Topography. Optical image to the left, 2D representation in the middle and 3D to the right. 

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A closer look

Theta Topography is based on the high-end tensiometer Theta Flow. Check out the specifications of both specifications for Theta Flow and the 3D Topography module below. 

Theta Flow

Available Measurements

Static contact angle and captive bubble
Batch contact angle
Dynamic contact angle
Meniscus contact angle
Surface/Interfacial tension
3D surface roughness and roughness-corrected contact angle
Interfacial rheology
Surface free energy

Zisman Plot, OWRK/Extended Fowkes, van Oss Acid-Base, Wu, Neumann’s Equation of State, Schultz 1 and 2

Software and hardware

Measuring range (°, mN/m)

0…180, 0.01…2000

Accuracy (°, mN/m)

±0.1, ±0.01

Maximum sample size (mm)


Integrated sample holders
Maximum resolution (px)

2592 x 2048 (5 MP)

Maximum measuring speed (fps)



CMOS 1'' USB 3.0 digital camera with zoom

Image focusing

Software-controlled autofocus, manual fine focus in optics

Image quality

Enhanced with DropletPlus technology, native

Camera protection

Inside instrument covers

Camera view angle (°)

-4.5 ... 2.5, with digital scale

Light source and size

LED based homogeneous background lighting, 62 x 62 mm

Field of view (Ø, mm)


Measurement indicator LED
Integrated touch display
Environment monitoring
Disposable tip dispensing

OneAttension, includes all measurement modes

Dimensions — Basic frame (L×W×H, mm)

765 x 230 x 435

Weight — Basic frame (kg)


Power supply (VAC)


Frequency (Hz)


3D Topography module

Hardware Other specifications
Dimensions: 17 cm x 16.5 cm x 11.5 cm Method name: Fringe projection phase-shifting
Weight: 2.6 kg XY pixel size: 1.1 μm x 1.1 μm
Power supply: 100 - 240 V AC Measured range in Z direction: 1 μm – 60 μm
Frequency: 50 - 60 Hz Axial resolution: 4 nm
System requirements Lateral sampling: 1.41 mm x 1.06 mm (XY).
(Stitching option up to 4.2 mm x 4.2 mm)
Antivibration or stone table recommended Working distance: 18 mm
Motorized XYZ sample stage required Maximum sample size on sample stage:
Unlimited x 320 mm x 22 mm (L x W x H)
  Imaging options:
Optical image, 2D roughness map, 3D roughness map
  Measurement duration per one measurement:
5-30 s (1280 x 960 measurement points)
  Analysis parameters (ISO 4287, ISO 4288):
• r (for Wenzel equation)
• θc, roughness corrected contact angle/Wenzel contact angle
• Sdr (%), Sa (um), Sq (um)
• Horizontal, vertical and from chosen 2D line segment Ra, Rq,
Rp, Rv, Rz, R10z
  Waviness filtering: Gaussian high pass filter (ISO 11562)
  Sample requirements/limitations:
Diffuse reflecting surface required


OneAttension Software

We made our software for Theta Topography with you in mind. It is a fine combination of a very intuitive interface and high functionality. Follow your experiment live, and get the results within seconds. OneAttension is analyzing made easy. Let's have a look at the features! 

OneAttension Features

  • User friendly interface
    To get you going in no time
  • Fully automated measurements
    Saving your time and avoiding user dependency
  • Automatic baseline detection and drop shape fitting
    Just to simplify for you
  • Autofocus keeps the picture sharp
    Less user-dependency, more accuracy
  • Seamless interplay with integrated touch screen
    Set up your measurements in seconds
  • Optimized image quality
    Ultra-high resolution image optimized for reliable results
  • Automatic roughness-corrected contact angle
    Distinguish surface roughness from surface chemistry
  • Versatile roughness parameters
    Selection of both 3D and 2D parameters with one measurement
  • Image your surface
    Optical image, 2D representation and 3D representation of the surface are given
  • Surface mapping of larger areas
    Stitching function combines several scans into one large image

Add more possibilities

Have a look at a few of the additional modules compatible with Theta Topography. You can find the full range of accessories below. 


Tilting cradle

A software controlled tilting cradle. Used for studying dynamic contact angles. Tilting range from 0 to 90° and tilting resolution 0.1°. The vacuum stage top C204B is recommended to be used with this option.


Picoliter Dispenser

Automated picoliter-scale drop formation. Especially for inkjet applications and for measuring contact angle on very small sample areas.

Measuring chamber, electrically heated, 250° C

Thermostatted electrically heated measuring chamber for air phase temperature control of substrate and drop.


Pulsating Drop Module - PD200

Software controlled drop size pulsing for interfacial rheology measurement of viscoelastic properties of interfacial layers at liquid-air or liquid-liquid interfaces.

What others say

Our instruments are present at many prestigious universities and research facilities world wide. Take a minute to find out what others say about Theta Flow. 


Mika Latikka, PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher, Soft Matter and Wetting. Aalto University

”The touch display in Theta Flow makes measurement preparation faster and simpler. Actions like changing the sample and sample liquid are greatly facilitated which allows increasingly efficient measurements.” 

Aalto University, Finland

Aalto University is a top Finnish university combining science, technology and arts into a collaborative environment for both scientific communities and companies. Our contact angle meters and tensiometers have been used there in research for decades. 


Researcher at MIT, US

“The reproducibility of the measurements acquired is excellent even with the lowest surface energy values and the tensiometers are quite flexible with regards to sample size. The software is also very useful and the customer support for the products is excellent.”




MIT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a world-leading research university with a mission to advance knowledge and educate students in science and technology. MIT uses our tensiometers to study contact angles and interfacial energy. 

Learn more

We have gathered all our in-depth knowledge associated with Theta Topography. Browse around amongst overviews, case studies and white papers to find a topic of your interest. 

  • Attension
Contact Angle - What is it and how do you measure it?
White Paper

Contact Angle - What is it and how do you measure it?

Learn more about one of the most used measurement method to study the wettability of the surface.

  • Attension
Superhydrophobic and Superhydrophilic Surfaces for Cell Trapping

Superhydrophobic and Superhydrophilic Surfaces for Cell Trapping

Check out the webinar by Ville Jokinen, PhD from Aalto University on Superhydrophobic and Superhydrophilic Surfaces for Cell Trapping

Go there
  • Attension
The Influence of Surface Roughness on Wettability
White Paper

The Influence of Surface Roughness on Wettability

Learn how surface roughness is measured with Theta Topography and in what applications it is useful.

  • Attension
Determination of Optimal Plasma Treatment Time of Polypropylene
Case Study

Determination of Optimal Plasma Treatment Time of Polypropylene

Learn how contact angle and surface free energy can be utilized to determine the optimum plasma treatment time.

Get it
  • Attension
Surface Tension and Surfactants in Industrial Processes

Surface Tension and Surfactants in Industrial Processes

Get an overview of how surfactants are used in industrial processes.

Go there
  • Attension
Wettability Measurements in Biomedical Applications
White Paper

Wettability Measurements in Biomedical Applications

Read how wettability measurements have been utilized in biomedical research

  • Attension
Effect of Wettability in Biomedical Applications

Effect of Wettability in Biomedical Applications

Explore why wettability measurements are an important part of biomaterial characterization.

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  • Attension
Using Contact Angle Measurements in Surface Research and Quality Control

Using Contact Angle Measurements in Surface Research and Quality Control

Get an understanding about how contact angle measurements are utilized in industry to optimize and control surfaces.

Go there
  • Attension
The Importance of Contact Angle in Industry

The Importance of Contact Angle in Industry

Get examples of how contact angle measurements are utilized in different industries.

Get it