What you can measure

  • Roughness-corrected contact angle and 3D surface roughness
    Fringe projection phase shifting method
  • Interfacial dilatational rheology 
    Pulsating drop method
  • Static contact angle 
    Sessile drop, captive bubble and meniscus methods
  • Dynamic contact angle 
    Dynamic contact angle, advancing and receding contact angle, contact angle hysteresis and roll-off angle
  • Surface free energy 
    Sessile drop, captive bubble and meniscus methods
  • Surface- and interfacial tension 
    Pendant drop and reverse pendant drop methods

3 reasons to invest

Innovative instrument

Behind Theta Topography stands our versatile instrument Theta Flex with added functionality. The innovative Theta Topography lets you peek at the surface like never before. Surface roughness can be displayed in both 2D and 3D. 

Integrated method

You are able to define contact angle and surface roughness accurately from the same location. Combine surface chemical and topographical data with automated software calculations. 

Better comparisons

When your contact angle and surface free energy results are roughness-corrected, it is possible to distinguish the effect of surface chemistry and surface roughness on wettability. This is important for example when working with coatings or surface treatments.


Is your surface smooth?

Wettability is typically studied by a contact angle measurement that can be defined with the well-known Young equation on ideal surfaces. Surface free energy theories are also based on assumptions that Young contact angles are used for calculations. Thus, the surface is assumed to be chemically homogenous and topographically smooth. This is, however, not true in the case of real surfaces. It is well established that surface roughness enhances the existing wetting behavior and influence on adhesion.

Theta Topography makes it possible to define Young contact angle and surface free energy measurements as well as measurements for rough surfaces according to the Wenzel theory. The roughness corrected contact angles make it possible to understand the influence of roughness and chemistry on the wettability of your surface, separately. By using the highly accurate motorized XYZ sample stage, you can perform both measurements from the exact same location and map the complete surface to check homogeneity and cleanliness. 

Images show a paper sample measured with Theta Topography. Optical image to the left, 2D representation in the middle and 3D to the right. 

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A closer look

Theta Topography is based on the versatile Theta Flex. Check out the specifications of the instrument and compare it to Theta Lite. 

Theta Flex
Theta Lite

Available Measurements

Static contact angle
Dynamic contact angle
Automatic Manual
Surface/Interfacial tension
3D surface roughness
Interfacial rheology
Surface free energy
Zisman Plot, OWRK/Extended Fowkes, van Oss Acid-Base, Wu, Neumann’s Equation of State, Schultz 1 and 2

Available Measurement Methods

Sessile drop
Batch sessile drop
Captive bubble
Pendant drop
Reverse pendant drop
Dynamic contact angle
Automatic Manual
Pulsating drop
3D Topography


Measuring range (°, mN/m)
0…180, 0.01…2000 0…180, 0.01…2000
Accuracy (°, mN/m)
±0.1, ±0.01 ±0.1, ±0.01
Maximum sample size (mm)
Unlimited×100×320 (with stage) Unlimited×45×200 (with stage)
Integrated sample holders
Yes Yes
Frame interval
0.33 ms ... 1000 s 0.48 ms ... 1000 s
Maximum resolution (px)
1984×1264 1280×1024
Maximum measuring speed (fps)
3009 2068
USB 3.0 digital camera with zoom USB 3.0 digital camera
Camera protection
Inside instrument covers Inside instrument covers
Camera view angle (°)
 -4.5 ... 2.5  -2 ... 2
Light source and size
LED based background lighting, 62 x 62 mm LED based background lighting, Ø 20 mm
Field of view (Ø, mm)
1.44…32.3 2.9…12 
Measurement indicator LED
Yes No
Disposable tip dispensing
Dimensions — Basic frame (L×W×H, mm)
 765 x 230 x 435  495 x 130 x 310
Weight — Basic frame (kg)
26 5
Power supply (VAC)
90…264 100…240
Frequency (Hz)
47 ... 440 50 ... 60
Hardware Other specifications
Dimensions: 17 cm x 16.5 cm x 11.5 cm Method name: Fringe projection phase-shifting
Weight: 2.6 kg XY pixel size: 1.1 μm x 1.1 μm
Power supply: 100 - 240 V AC Measured range in Z direction: 1 μm – 60 μm
Frequency: 50 - 60 Hz Axial resolution: 4 nm
System requirements Lateral sampling: 1.41 mm x 1.06 mm (XY).
(Stitching option up to 4.2 mm x 4.2 mm)
Antivibration or stone table recommended Working distance: 18 mm
Motorized XYZ sample stage required Maximum sample size on sample stage:
Unlimited x 320 mm x 22 mm (L x W x H)
  Imaging options:
Optical image, 2D roughness map, 3D roughness map
  Measurement duration per one measurement:
5-30 s (1280 x 960 measurement points)
  Analysis parameters (ISO 4287, ISO 4288):
• r (for Wenzel equation)
• θc, roughness corrected contact angle/Wenzel contact angle
• Sdr (%), Sa (um), Sq (um)
• Horizontal, vertical and from chosen 2D line segment Ra, Rq,
Rp, Rv, Rz, R10z
  Waviness filtering: Gaussian high pass filter (ISO 11562)
  Sample requirements/limitations:
Diffuse reflecting surface required



OneAttension Software

We made our software for Theta Topography with you in mind. It is a fine combination of a very intuitive interface and high functionality. Follow your experiment live, and get the results within seconds. OneAttension is analyzing made easy. Let's have a look at the features! 

OneAttension Features

  • User friendly interface
    To get you going in no time
  • Fully automated measurements
    Saving your time and avoiding user dependency
  • Automatic baseline detection and drop shape fitting
    Just to simplify for you
  • Batch angle mode
    When you have plenty of tests to run in no time
  • Meniscus contact angle mode
    When you are finding out the contact angle of fibers
  • Automated liquid purity checkup
    So you can trust your results
  • Automatic roughness-corrected contact angle
    Distinguish surface roughness from surface chemistry
  • Versatile roughness parameters
    Selection of both 3D and 2D parameters with one measurement
  • Image your surface
    Optical image, 2D representation and 3D representation of the surface are given
  • Surface mapping of larger areas
    Stitching function combines several scans into one large image


Add more possibilities

Have a look at a few of the additional modules compatible with Theta Topography. You can find the full range of accessories below. 


Tilting cradle

A software controlled tilting cradle. Used for studying dynamic contact angles. Tilting range from 0 to 90° and tilting resolution 0.1°. The vacuum stage top C204B is recommended to be used with this option.


Picoliter Dispenser

Automated picoliter-scale drop formation. Especially for inkjet applications and for measuring contact angle on very small sample areas.

Measuring chamber, electrically heated, 250° C

Thermostatted electrically heated measuring chamber for air phase temperature control of substrate and drop.


Pulsating Drop Module - PD200

Software controlled drop size pulsing for interfacial rheology measurement of viscoelastic properties of interfacial layers at liquid-air or liquid-liquid interfaces.


What others say

Our instruments are present at many prestigious universities and research facilities world wide. Take a minute to find out what others say about Theta Flex. 



"User friendly and easy to operate equipment with the right technology for the most demanding research."

Nanjing Univerisity, China

Nanjing University was founded in 1902 and it is one of the key universities in China. Nanjing University measures contact angle, advancing and receding angles and surface tension of liquids with an Attension® contact angle meter to characterize superhydrophobic surfaces.


Ville Jokinen, Aalto University

"When you're working with the instrument every day, automated reliable measurements are very important." 
Watch the full story



Aalto University, Finland

Aalto University is a top Finnish university combining science, technology and arts into a collaborative environment for both scientific communities and companies. Our contact angle meters and tensiometers have been used there in research for decades. 


Learn more

We have gathered all our in-depth knowledge associated with Theta Topography. Browse around amongst overviews, case studies and white papers to find a topic of your interest.