A basic requirement of any coating is that it should form a uniform, defect-free surface. Surface and interfacial tensions play a key role in that.
To avoid potential adverse effects, it is relevant to study how nanoparticles interact with their surroundings. Here we present examples of how nanoparticle interaction with a variety of surfaces can be analyzed.
Contact angle hysteresis is often measured with so-called tilting cradle or plate method. The measurement can be done either manually or automatically.