The term surfactant comes from the word surface active agent. At the interface, they align themselves so that the hydrophobic part is in the air and the hydrophilic part is in water. This will cause a decrease in surface or interfacial tensions.
Nanoparticle thin film-based sensors offer several advantages over traditional sensor types, especially in electrochemical sensing. The main challenge has been the fabrication of the nanoparticle sensing layer. Two main methods have been used; layer-by-layer (LbL) and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB).
The official World Cup ball 2018 is called Telstar 18, inspired by the original Telstar that was made for 1970 games. It resembles the one used in 1970 by the appearance but that's where the similarities end. Have you ever thought how much science is put behind to develop the perfect soccer ball?