QCM-D publications in virus-related research
Malin Edvardsson Jun 2, ’20 > 3 min

QCM-D publications in virus-related research

Since the beginning of this century, QSense QCM-D has been used to study viruses and virus-interaction with their immediate surrounding. Here we give examples of virus-related research where QCM-D technology has been used.

Insights into virus interaction with its surrounding

QCM-D, which is a surface-sensitive technology, has been used to explore and characterize various aspects of biological systems for more than two decades.1-3  The time-resolved information of mass change at the surface can be used to study biomolecular interactions such as surface-protein, lipid-protein and protein-protein interactions, Fig. 1, and reveal, for example, interaction patterns as a function of molecules, surface and solvent conditions.

An area where such information is useful is in virus-related research. In this field, QCM-D technology has been used to shed light on several different aspects of virus behavior and interaction with the surrounding. Over the years, a vast range of viruses have been studied, for example Norovirus, Poxvirus, Rotavirus, Herpesvirus, Ebola, Hepatitis C and Zika virus.

Biomolecular interactions characterized by QCM-D

Figure 1. Schematic illustration of how the QCM-D response can be used to reveal biomolecular interactions such as (top panel) (A) adsorption, (B) binding and (C) enzymatic action. The Δf and ΔD data (bottom panel) reflect time-resolved mass uptake and layer softness respectively and can also be used to quantify the layer thickness.

From basic sciences to applied research and development

QCM-D analysis is used in both basic and applied research. The aim could for example be to gain increased knowledge and to get a fundamental understanding of virus behavior and interaction patterns in a certain context. In more applied work, the aim could for example be to develop antiviral therapies.

Examples of virus-related research where QCM-D has been used include:

  • Assay development to study viral protein interaction with its ligand
  • Investigation of virion interaction with a host cell membrane mimic to gain insights useful in drug development
  • Exploration and development of new antiviral strategies to combat existing as well as unknown viruses
  • Sensor development for virus detection
  • Studies of virus interaction with the material of medical masks

In the overview below, we have compiled a list of examples of virus-related publications where QCM-D technology has been used. Download the overview to learn more

Overview  QCM-D publications in virus-related research  Download



  1. Simultaneous frequency and dissipation factor QCM measurements of biomolecular adsorption and cell adhesion; Rodahl M., Höök F., Fredriksson C., Keller C. A., Krozer A., Brzezinski P., Voinova M., Kasemo B.; Faraday Discussions, 1997, No 107, 229-246
  2. Structural Changes in Hemoglobin during Adsorption to Solid Surfaces: Effects of pH, Ionic Strength and Ligand Binding; Höök F., Rodahl M., Kasemo B., Brzezinski P., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Oct 13; 95(21): 12271–12276
  3. The Dissipative QCM‑D Technique: Interfacial Phenomena and Sensor Applications for Proteins, Biomembranes, Living Cells and Polymers; Hook F., Rodahl M., Keller C., Glasmastar K., Fredriksson C., Dahiqvist P., Kasemo B., 1999 Joint Meeting EFTF - IEEE IFCS, Volume 2, 13-16 April 1999 Page(s):966 - 972 vol.2

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