Since the beginning of this century, QSense QCM-D has been used to study viruses and virus-interaction with their immediate surrounding. Here we give examples of virus-related research where QCM-D technology has been used.
Insights into virus interaction with its surrounding
QCM-D, which is a surface-sensitive technology, has been used to explore and characterize various aspects of biological systems for more than two decades.1-3 The time-resolved information of mass change at the surface can be used to study biomolecular interactions such as surface-protein, lipid-protein and protein-protein interactions, Fig. 1, and reveal, for example, interaction patterns as a function of molecules, surface and solvent conditions.
An area where such information is useful is in virus-related research. In this field, QCM-D technology has been used to shed light on several different aspects of virus behavior and interaction with the surrounding. Over the years, a vast range of viruses have been studied, for example Norovirus, Poxvirus, Rotavirus, Herpesvirus, Ebola, Hepatitis C and Zika virus.
Figure 1. Schematic illustration of how the QCM-D response can be used to reveal biomolecular interactions such as (top panel) (A) adsorption, (B) binding and (C) enzymatic action. The Δf and ΔD data (bottom panel) reflect time-resolved mass uptake and layer softness respectively and can also be used to quantify the layer thickness.
From basic sciences to applied research and development
QCM-D analysis is used in both basic and applied research. The aim could for example be to gain increased knowledge and to get a fundamental understanding of virus behavior and interaction patterns in a certain context. In more applied work, the aim could for example be to develop antiviral therapies.
Examples of virus-related research where QCM-D has been used include:
Assay development to study viral protein interaction with its ligand
Investigation of virion interaction with a host cell membrane mimic to gain insights useful in drug development
Exploration and development of new antiviral strategies to combat existing as well as unknown viruses
Sensor development for virus detection
Studies of virus interaction with the material of medical masks
In the overview below, we have compiled a list of examples of virus-related publications where QCM-D technology has been used. Download the overview to learn more
Simultaneous frequency and dissipation factor QCM measurements of biomolecular adsorption and cell adhesion; Rodahl M., Höök F., Fredriksson C., Keller C. A., Krozer A., Brzezinski P., Voinova M., Kasemo B.; Faraday Discussions, 1997, No 107, 229-246
Structural Changes in Hemoglobin during Adsorption to Solid Surfaces: Effects of pH, Ionic Strength and Ligand Binding; Höök F., Rodahl M., Kasemo B., Brzezinski P., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Oct 13; 95(21): 12271–12276
The Dissipative QCM‑D Technique: Interfacial Phenomena and Sensor Applications for Proteins, Biomembranes, Living Cells and Polymers; Hook F., Rodahl M., Keller C., Glasmastar K., Fredriksson C., Dahiqvist P., Kasemo B., 1999 Joint Meeting EFTF - IEEE IFCS, Volume 2, 13-16 April 1999 Page(s):966 - 972 vol.2
Recent research results could help designing formulations better stabilized against protein aggregation, one of the main challenges in pharmaceutical development. QSense QCM-D analysis helped piecing the puzzle together