The material composition of nanoparticles is an important aspect to consider when engineering nanomaterials that should fulfil specific property and performance criteria. Here we list 10 methods that can be used to characterize the nanoparticle chemical composition
The chemical composition of nanoparticles can range from a single raw material to multiple ones, assembled into multi-layered and composite objects. The composition of the outer surface is important as it interfaces, and will interact with, the surrounding environment. The outer surface can be tailored to achieve a specific performance. For example, in nanomedicines, the nanoparticle surface can be functionalized with molecules to target specific cells in the body. Another example of surface tailoring would be where the nanoparticle is coated with a resistant layer to protect the core material from surrounding harsh conditions.
The chemical composition of the nanoparticles can be characterized both in terms of surface and bulk chemistry. The surface chemistry refers to the composition of the outer layer of the nanoparticle, i.e. the layer which is exposed to the surrounding environment. The bulk chemistry corresponds to all chemical compounds present in the nanoparticles. Access to the surface or bulk chemical composition depends on the sensing depth of the measuring tool. The chemical composition of nanoparticles is mainly obtained by spectroscopy techniques and can be combined with microscopy to achieve single-particle level.
Below we list a set of techniques that can be used to extract the nanoparticle chemical composition. The information will be either on the ensemble level or at the single nanoparticle level, denoted with (E) and (SP) respectively.
The surface chemistry of nanoparticles can be obtained using:
Information about the bulk chemical composition of nanoparticles can be obtained using:
In addition to the chemical composition, there are several other parameters that are important to characterize, such as size, concentration in solution, shape, and surface charge.
Download the overview to learn more about the characterization of nanoparticle suspensions, and what characterization methods that can be used.
Nanomaterials have found their way into ordinary products such as foods, cosmetics, and sportswear. Why did ‘nano’ become so popular? And what risks are involved when getting exposed to these nanoengineered entities?
To avoid potential adverse effects, it is relevant to study how nanoparticles interact with their surroundings. Here we present examples of how nanoparticle interaction with a variety of surfaces can be analyzed.
Nanoparticle size is one of the key parameters that are relevant to characterize in nanoparticle suspensions. Here we list six different methods that you can use to characterize the nanoparticle size.
Nanoparticle suspensions are complex systems and their characterization includes several parameters such as size, concentration in solution, shape, surface charge and chemical composition. Here we provide a list of methods that could be used to characterize nanoparticle suspensions.
Nanoparticle suspensions are complex systems, and understanding their interaction with their environment requires characterization of a broad range of physicochemical properties. Here we present an overview of the key parameters that can be used to profile nanoparticle suspensions.
This blog post discusses the nanoparticle interaction in biological environment.
Nanoparticle lithography is a promising fabrication technique. Unlike other techniques, it has a potential to be performed on curved surfaces.